History of Quetta
The history of Quetta is of great historical importance. Before the arrival of the Arabs, a small settlement surrounded by the four mountains of Balochistan, Koh-i-Murdar, Zarghoon Mountain, Koh-i-Takatu, and Koh-i-Chiltan, was settled. There was a lot of greenery and water here. The residents of this town used to live by herding sheep and goats. At first, the settlement known as “Shal“.
There were fruit orchards near the settlement. When the production of fruits started to increase, a market established here due to which the people here became happy. After some time, this settlement took the form of a village. Village houses and streets were paved. Thus this place became a town and its name became “Shalkot“. When the town changed into a city due to the increase in population, its name changed from “Shal Kot” to “Kot“, which later became Kwata and then Quetta.
In the eleventh century AD, Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked here and included it in his government. In 1543, the Mughal emperor Humayun camped here before leaving for Iran and left his one-year-old son Akbar at this place. The Mughals ruled Quetta until 1556. After that, it came under the control of Iran. In 1595 Akbar conquered it again. Khan of Kalat established his fort here in 1730. The British army occupied it in 1839. In 1876, it was fully incorporated into the British government.
The 1935 earthquake destroyed Quetta. Thirty thousand people lost their lives in this earthquake. Most of the buildings became piles of rubble. The present city is constructed on these ruins. After the earthquake, there was a practice of building mud, wood, and tin houses here, which then transformed into solid houses over time.
Quetta became the capital of Balochistan province after the creation of Pakistan in 1947. This city has special importance even today. It is the 10th largest city in Pakistan in terms of population. According to the 2017 census, its population is 1,001,205. Its borders are with two important countries, Afghanistan and Iran.
Many modern buildings are present in Quetta. Among them, the most important building is the Quetta Television Center. The other important building is the State Bank of Pakistan. The vast building of Balochistan University is worth seeing. Mali Bagh Ground is very famous for playing football. Among the main markets of Quetta are Kandahari Bazar, Liaquat Bazar, and Surajganj Bazar. There are numerous handmade items available here for the attention of tourists. Among them, glasswork dresses, jewelry, Hazarganji slippers, and Hazarganji carpets are famous all over the world.